Hao YH, Fountain MD Jr, Fon Tacer K, Xia F, Bi W, Kang SH, Patel A, Rosenfeld JA, Le Caignec C, Isidor B, Krantz ID, Noon SE, Pfotenhauer JP, Morgan TM, Moran R, Pedersen RC, Saenz MS, Schaaf CP, Potts PR
Mol Cell. 2015 Sep 17;59(6):956-69. doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2015.07.033. Epub 2015 Sep 10
Endosomal protein recycling is a fundamental cellular process important for cellular homeostasis, signaling, and fate determination that is implicated in several diseases. WASH is an actin-nucleating protein essential for this process, and its activity is controlled through K63-linked ubiquitination by the MAGEL2-TRIM27 ubiquitin ligase. Here, we show that the USP7 deubiquitinating enzyme is an integral component of the MAGEL2-TRIM27 ligase and is essential for WASH-mediated endosomal actin assembly and protein recycling. Mechanistically, USP7 acts as a molecular rheostat to precisely fine-tune endosomal F-actin levels by counteracting TRIM27 auto-ubiquitination/degradation and preventing overactivation of WASH through directly deubiquitinating it. Importantly, we identify de novo heterozygous loss-of-function mutations of USP7 in individuals with a neurodevelopmental disorder, featuring intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. These results provide unanticipated insights into endosomal trafficking, illuminate the cooperativity between an ubiquitin ligase and a deubiquitinating enzyme, and establish a role for USP7 in human neurodevelopmental disease.
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