From birth, mammals have to find food and maximize caloric intake to ensure growth and survival. Suckling must be initiated quickly after birth and then maintained and controlled until weaning. It is a complex process involving interactions between sensory and motor neuronal pathways. Meanwhile, the control of food intake and energy homeostasis is progressively established via the development of hypothalamic circuits. The development of these circuits is influenced by hormonal and nutritional signals and can be disturbed in a variety of developmental disorders leading to long-term metabolic, behavioral and cognitive dysfunctions. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the neuronal circuits involved in early postnatal feeding processes.